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Why Do Women Get Ovarian Cancer

Nov 27, 2022 By Madison Evans

Malignant, or cancerous, cells harm ovarian tissues, which is what we mean when talking about ovarian cancer. Epithelial cells, which line the ovaries; germ cells, which develop into eggs; and follicular cells, which hold the ovaries together, are all potential candidates for this category of tissues.

Different Types of Ovarian Cancer

The three primary forms of ovarian cancer are classified according to the genesis of the cancerous cells. Tumours of the epithelial layer are the most prevalent, although there are also tumours of the stroma and germ cells. Each of these three primary subtypes of ovarian cancer has its subtypes for over 30 distinct ovarian cancers.

Ovarian Cancer Symptoms

Ovarian cancer symptoms are not often evident until the cancer has progressed to a later stage. They can be difficult to diagnose since they are similar to many other diseases. These symptoms may include, for instance:

  • Indigestion
  • Abdominal puffiness
  • Ache in the lower back or pelvis
  • Cycle changes
  • Weight loss unexplained
  • Urinating often
  • Bowel issues such as constipation
  • Extreme satiety following a little meal

Risk Factors For Ovarian Cancer

Malignant tumours form when alterations in DNA trigger fast cell division and growth of normally functioning cells. These DNA changes' specific origins are unknown, although they are thought to be inherited in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. Gene mutations might also develop after exposure to certain chemicals or radiation.

Ovarian cancer risks include:

  • A family history of breast cancer
  • Being overweight
  • Being diagnosed with ovarian cancer within the first-degree family
  • Hormone replacement treatment (HRT) containing just estrogen after menopause

Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is often diagnosed after a pelvic exam, and imaging tests (such as a transvaginal ultrasound or CT scan) of the abdomen and pelvis have been performed. Protein CA-125, often found on the surface of ovarian cancer cells, can be detected in a blood test. A biopsy will be conducted to collect tissue samples for a pathologist to analyze if any of these tests indicate malignancy is present.

Different Ovarian Cancer Stages

Ovarian cancer staging involves determining whether or not the disease has progressed to lymph nodes and how extensive the tumour is at the time of diagnosis. Ovarian cancer treatment plans benefit greatly from stage identification.

Stage 1

Cancer of the ovary is typically localized to one or both ovaries at stage 1. Stage 1 can be further subdivided into substages 1A (when the cancer is confined to a single ovary), 1B (when the disease has spread to both ovaries), and 1C (when cancer has spread to the surface of the ovary or ovaries, the tumour has burst, or cancer cells have infiltrated the abdominal fluid).

Stage 2

Cancer has progressed to other areas of the pelvis in stage 2. Cancer is considered stage 2A if it has only progressed to the uterus and fallopian tubes; it is stage 2B if it has also spread to other organs in the pelvic area.

Cancer has spread to the surface of the ovary or ovaries, the tumour has burst, or cancer cells have infiltrated the abdomen fluid, then the disease is considered to be in the second most advanced stage, 2C.

Stage 3

Stage 3 ovarian cancer has progressed beyond the pelvic area. Spread to abdominal surfaces is indicated by stages 3A and 3B. (at 3B, a larger amount of cancer is present). If cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, it is at a more advanced stage, 3C.

Stage 4

In the advanced stages of the disease, ovarian cancer has metastasized to other body parts.

How Is Ovarian Cancer Treated?

Each woman diagnosed with ovarian cancer at Moffitt receives a treatment plan created just for her. There is a wide range of treatment options available, which may include the following:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiological treatment
  • Laser therapy
  • Hormones

Ovarian Cancer Therapy

We provide the greatest quality therapy and give our services and support in one central place since we know how daunting it may be to face a diagnosis or suspicion of ovarian cancer. Moffitt's gynaecological clinic treats women who need gynaecological treatment with compassion and elegance. In addition, our patients gain:

Innovative technology and therapy

We use robots to conduct a wide range of surgical operations, many of which may be done with less invasive incisions.

In addition to conventional medical therapy, we provide a wide variety of alternative and complementary choices, such as yoga, massage, nutritional counselling, and fertility preservation therapies.


At Moffitt, we treat cancer using a multispecialty approach, which means that instead of just one doctor caring for a patient, they will have access to a whole team of experts.

A tumour board review is a weekly meeting when doctors from various fields discuss patient situations in depth.

Our team includes gynecologic oncologists, radiologists, pathologists, radiation oncologists, endocrinologists specializing in reproductive health, seasoned nurses, social workers, and other caregivers.

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